Glossary

Abandoned Cable:

National Electric Code requires the removal of all abandoned cable. While conducting a site survey, documentation and pricing should be including for removal of abandoned cable before installing new voice and data cabling.

Above Ceiling Cable Tray System:

Either basket tray or ladder rack styles are available to allow for convenient installation of current and future cabling projects.

Alien Crosstalk (AXT):

This refers to cables interfering with the signals of other cables in close proximity. This tends to be significant in Category 6 cables exposed to high frequencies, but quite low in Cat6a.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI):

This private non-profit organization oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way. ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards. These accrediting programs assess conformance to standards – including globally-recognized cross-sector programs such as the ISO 9000 (quality) and ISO 14000 (environmental) management systems. ANSI coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide, helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the protection of the environment.

Armored Cabling:

This is typically done by contractors and maintenance technicians working in the building. Traditional fiber optic cabling is protected with plastic inner-duct that offers very little protection from a drill bit or powered saw. Armored cabling provides a much higher degree of protection against accidental damage that can bring down your network in a flash.

Backbone Fiber Installation:

We provide and install indoor and outdoor Fiber Optic Plant cabling to establish high speed connections between your data closets in a single building, or connect multiple buildings. Trenching and Aerial services are available.

Bandwidth:

The bandwidth of a given conveyance media is essentially its information carrying capacity. The greater the bandwidth of a system, the faster it is able to push data across a network.

Building Industry Consulting Service International (BICSI):

This professional association supports the advancement of the information and communications technology industry and publishes standards, guidelines and reference manuals for use in the design, installation and integration of information technology systems (ITS) such as the ANSI/EIA/TIA structured cabling system standard. These standards address optical fiber and copper-based cabling infrastructures used for voice, data, wireless, and other forms of IT and communication systems that support all market and industry sectors. It certifies cable installers and designers who specialize in complex voice/data cable layouts. BICSI provides information, education and knowledge assessment for individuals and companies in the ICT industry through courses, conferences, publications and professional registration programs.

Cable:

is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs (Local Area Networks). In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size.

Category 5, Cat 5, Category 5e or Cat5e Cabling:

Commonly referred to as Cat5E, this is a twisted pair cable type designed for high signal integrity. It is often used in cabling for computer networks and is also used to carry basic voice services.

Category 6:

Commonly referred to as Cat 6, it is used to carry Ethernet 10Base-T, 100Base-TX, and 1000Base-T (Gigabit Ethernet) connections. Cat 6 cable is backed with more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise than earlier cabling standards.

Category 6a or Cat 6a (augmented) cabling:

Cat6a is bulkier and heavier than Cat6, and it needs to be treated more carefully, but it allows you to cover longer distances and greatly reduces alien crosstalk. Cat6 and Cat6a were designed for Gigabit Ethernet and other standard network protocols, so they can both handle 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-TX, and 10GBASE-T. The differences don't become clear until you start looking at speed and distance. Cat6 cable is rated for 250 MHz, so it has a reduced maximum length (37-55 meters) when used for 10GBASE-T applications. Cat6a doubles that capability by performing at up to 500 MHz, which allows 10GBASE-T to be run over longer distances of up to 100 meters. Both Cat6 and Cat6a are backward-compatible with Cat3, Cat5, and Cat5e.

While Cat6 combines tight pair twists with extra insulation to reduce crosstalk, Cat6a improvements also twist each pair around a flexible (and also twisted) central plastic support. When quoting a job requiring Cat6a cable, the budget often includes extra time for the following tests: alien attenuation crosstalk ratio far-end (AACRF), alien far-end crosstalk (AFEXT), alien near-end crosstalk (ANEXT), power sum alien attenuation crosstalk ratio far-end (PSAACRF), power sum alien far-end crosstalk (PSAFEXT), and power sum alien near-end crosstalk (PSANEXT).

Category 7 cabling:

Category 7 cable (Cat 7), (ISO/IEC 11801:2002 category 7/class F), is a cable standard for Ethernet and other interconnect technologies that can be made to be backwards compatible with traditional Cat 5 and Cat 6 Ethernet cable. Cat 7 features even more strict specifications for crosstalk, EMI protection and system noise than Cat 6. Cat 7 cable features four individually shielded pairs as well as an overall cable shield to protect the signals from crosstalk and EMI. Cat7 cable provides a copper solution to support applications up to 10-Gigabit Ethernet at 100 meters. The ability to support the higher frequencies allows Cat7 and Cat7a cable to carry more data. Cat7 and Cat7a cabling are used for backbone connections between servers within a data center. This provides an alternative to using fiber optic cabling within the data center. Cat7 and Cat7a cabling will provide similar performance to some fiber solutions. The cost of equipment that supports copper cabling is typically less than equipment that supports fiber cabling. Another advantage is that the copper cabling is not as fragile as fiber cabling. Cat7 and Cat7a cable are designed to support much higher frequency signals than Cat5e and Cat6. This allows Cat7 and Ca7a cabling to carry a larger amount of information. Cat7 and Cat7a cable are also able to better protect the signals traveling over the cable. The shielding as well as the tighter twists of the pairs in Cat7 and Cat7a cable lessens the effects of crosstalk and EMI. This provides a high-speed interconnect used for data transfer within the network. Using Cat7 for a connection to a desktop would be unnecessary because the bandwidth would not be utilized. It may also be an unnecessary expense for many data center applications for the same reason. However, as technology advances and requirements increase, Cat7 cable will become more relevant in the data center and desktop connections.

Category 7a cabling:

Short for Category 7, Cat-7 network cabling is used as a cabling infrastructure for 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet, or GbE) and 10GBASE-T (10-Gigabit Ethernet, or 10 GbE) networks. The Cat 7 standard provides performance of up to 600 MHz (1000 MHz for the Cat-7a, or Augmented Category 7 standard) and can be used up to a maximum length of 100 meters.

Category 8 copper cabling:

will find its applications primarily in data centers. Like its predecessors, this “BASE-T” will be later to market than its co-ax and fiber-based competitors, but when it arrives, it will rapidly displace them because of its far lower cost. Cat 8 will become the mainstream technology for rack-level interconnect in the data center. However, unlike earlier gigabit and 10-gigabit technologies it will not have a 328 feet (100 meters) range and so it will not support centralized switching with passive patch-panels at row level, except in smaller server rooms. As a new low cost 40Gb/s connectivity, Category 8, the classification for the next-generation twisted-pair cabling, has potential for up to a 2GHz specification—four times today’s 500MHz bandwidth. That means copper could accommodate 10GBase-T using the same power per port or even less. Unlike copper cabling for earlier 1G and 10G technologies, Cat8 will not have a 100-meter range. For most data center purposes, however, this limitation is not a problem. TIA has performed cabling surveys to assess the reach needs in the typical data center, and these surveys indicate that the majority data center applications can be serviced with a 30-meter overall reach. The IEEE study group has also reviewed and confirmed the results of these studies.

Certification Testing:

It is important to use state-of-the-art equipment when testing, splicing, and troubleshooting fiber optic cabling. Fiber optic splicing is done with fusion splicers that fuse two fiber strands together as one, for near zero splice loss. Cable testing is done with end-to-end power meter testing at the wave-length matching the intended network link deployment, and troubleshooting and/or link-loss measurements are done with an Optical Time Delay Reflectometer (OTDR), which produce detailed reporting that is invaluable when locating loss points.

Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial cabling (commonly called coax) has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield. The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers. Although coaxial cabling is more difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. There are two types of coaxial cabling: thick coaxial and thin coaxial.

Coaxial Cable Connectors:

The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the Bayone-Neill-Concelman (BNC) connector. Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors, including a T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in any network. To help avoid problems with your network, always use the BNC connectors that crimp, rather screw, onto the cable.

Crosstalk:

Crosstalk is the "bleeding" of signals between one cable into another, due to a process called induction, thereby causing the signal from one channel or circuit to interfere with another channel or circuit's signal. This effect can result in slow network transfer speeds, and can even completely block the transfer of signals over the cable. Due to better insulation, signal degradation from near-end crosstalk (NEXT), power sum NEXT (PS-NEXT) and attenuation is far lower in Category 6 cable than it was in earlier versions like Cat5 and Cat5e. Cat6a reduces this to an even lower level.

Demarc Extension (also referred to as point of demarcation, demark or NET-POP):

This is the physical point at which the public network of your telecommunication (internet, phone or cable) company ends and a private network begins. In office buildings this point may be in a basement or telco closet.

Directional Boring:

Directional Boring is a method of trenchless technology. Directional boring is used in the installation of underground pipes and conduits that will transport different types wiring between distant locations. A pre-determined bore path allows minimal disturbance to the landscape and existing structures. Directional boring is primarily used for making crossings under ponds, streams, large parking lots, roads and existing structures or in places where traditional trenching is not possible.

Electronics Technicians Association, International (ETA® International):

This not-for-profit 501(c) 6 professional association provides professional credentials in over 80 certifications including electronics, fiber optics and data cabling, wireless communications, alarm security, computers, audio/video distribution, home automation, customer service, renewable energy, satellite, biomedical, avionics and, radar. ETA is one of 13 COLEMs for U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) testing. All certifications are accredited by the International Certification Accreditation Council (ICAC) and align with the ISO-17024 standards.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI):

Unwanted noise from electromagnetic radiation.

Fiber Optic Cable:

Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials. It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has become the standard for connecting networks between buildings, due to its immunity to the effects of moisture and lighting.

Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is more difficult to install and modify. 10BaseF refers to the specifications for fiber optic cable carrying Ethernet signals. The center core of fiber cables is made from glass or plastic fibers. A plastic coating then cushions the fiber center, and kevlar fibers help to strengthen the cables and prevent breakage. The outer insulating jacket made of teflon or PVC. There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can provide more distance, but it is more expensive.

Fiber optic cable wiring: is the backbone connecting one cable closet to the next. Fiber optic wiring is frequently used in server rooms and is a cost effective way to connect floors, or any area that is too large for Cat5 wiring or Cat6 cable. Fiber optic wiring has the ability to quickly transport significantly more data over longer distances faster than other types of cabling.

GFI, or GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter):

this device protects against electric shocks received from faults in electrical devices. GFCI protection should be provided everywhere there is a receptacle that may be subjected to moisture. A GFCI circuit breaker installed at the distribution panel protects all outlets on the circuit it controls. Additional outlets can be protected with push buttons when wired to the LOAD side of the local GFCI device. Individual outlets with test and reset buttons provide protection for a single outlet.

Horizontal Wire Management:

Providing a neat and clean appearance by managing and hiding cables and patch cords in cabinets and racks.

Industrial Cabling Solutions:

Industrial and other harsh environments require specialized connectors, outlet plates, and enclosures designed to protect networking components from water, dust, and other harsh environmental elements.

Local Area Network (LAN):

is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as an office building, using network media. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their smaller geographic area, and non-inclusion of leased telecommunication lines A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link. Typically, connected devices share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area. A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and to the Internet or other WAN.

Most local area networks are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables, network adapters, and hubs. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist.

Multi-Mode Fiber:

Best suited for premises applications where links are less than 2000 meters for 155 MB/s or less, 550 meters for data rates of 1 GB/s or less, and 300 meters for data rates of 10Gb/s or less. There are two types of micro-mode fiber, 62.5 um and 50 um. Our team can help determine the right type for you.

Multiple access options:

A variety of user access methods such as biometrics (thumb print), key fobs, or proximity access cards that can double as a company photo ID card.

Networking cables:

are used to connect and transfer data and information between computers, routers, switches and storage area networks. Network cables connect one network device to other network devices, or to connect two or more computers to share a printer, scanner etc. Different types of network cables include coaxial or coax cable, optical fiber or fiber optic cable and twisted pair cables. The type of cable used depends on the network's topology, protocol and size. Cables are essentially the carrier or media through which data flows. There are different types of network cable; the appropriate type depends on the structure and topology of the overall architecture of the system. The most commonly used types of network cables are dominated by what is referred to as “twisted pair cable”. In local area networks, twisted pair cable is by far the most commonly used type of cable.

Patch Panels:

A panel, typically rack mounted that houses cable connections. Allows for the assembly of hardware so that the number of circuits appear on jacks for monitoring, interconnecting, and testing circuits in a convenient, flexible manner. Angle patch panels are available to help conserve space.

Remote access:

this can be a real time saver if an employee needs access outside their normal access hours for some unique situation. If no manager is on site, an authorized person can log into the system remotely and change access rights.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable:

Although UTP cable is the least expensive cable, it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference. Therefore it should not be too close to electric motors, fluorescent lights, etc. If you must place cable in environments with lots of potential interference, or if you must place cable in extremely sensitive environments that may be susceptible to the electrical current in the UTP, shielded twisted pair (STP) may be a preferred solution. Shielded cables can also help to extend the maximum distance of the cables. Shielded twisted pair cable is available in three different configurations: (1) Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil, or (2) There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires (as a group), or (3) There is a shield around each individual pair, as well as around the entire group of wires (referred to as double shield twisted pair).

Single-Mode Fiber:

Best suited for bandwidth requirements exceeding multimode’s capability, distances exceeding multimode’s capability and where the application dictates single mode like video.

Sound Masking:

Commonly referred to as “white noise”, it is the addition of artificial sound into an environment to “mask” or cover-up unwanted sounds. It reduces or eliminates awareness of pre-existing sounds in a given area and can make a work environment more comfortable while creating privacy so workers can be more productive.

Structured Cabling:

refers to cabling and connectivity infrastructure that integrates the voice, data, video, and various management systems of a building (such as safety alarms, security access, and energy systems). Structured Cabling can terminate on patch panels to provide a neat and clean environment allowing easy changes.

System Integration:

Door access systems can be integrated with video security, providing access data to the video system. This information can be used to trigger cameras to record, and/or as a tool when searching for video.

Thick coaxial cable:

is also referred to as thicknet. 10Base5 refers to the specifications for thick coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 5 refers to the maximum segment length being 500 meters. Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective plastic cover that helps keep moisture away from the center conductor. This makes thick coaxial a great choice when running longer lengths. One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it does not bend easily and is difficult to install.

Thin coaxial cable:

is also referred to as thinnet. 10Base2 refers to the specifications for thin coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 2 refers to the approximate maximum segment length being 200 meters. In actual fact the maximum segment length is 185 meters.

Trenching:

Traditional trenching is the most common way to install cabling between multiple structures; however, trenching can only be accomplished when the entire path between the structures can be disturbed. If there are no buildings, roadways, waterways or other obstructions between the structures then trenching is the most cost effective way to run cabling between the buildings.

Twisted pair cabling:

comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded.

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP):

is the most popular cabling. The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunication Industry Association) has established standards of UTP and rated seven categories of wire. Today the most commonly installed wiring consists of Category 5, Category 5e, Category 6 or Category 7. Some buildings may still contain older Category 3 wiring.

Unshielded Twisted Pair Connector:

The standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector. This is a plastic connector that looks like a large telephone-style connector. A slot allows the RJ-45 to be inserted only one way. RJ stands for Registered Jack, implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from the telephone industry. This standard designates which wire goes with each pin inside the connector.

Vertical Wire Management:

Providing a neat and clean appearance by managing and hiding cables and patch cords in cabinets and racks.

Voice Cabling:

Telephone cabling installation services including backbone telephone cable splicing, Demarc extensions, troubleshooting and repair.

VoIP:

Voice over Internet Protocol in its most general meaning is the transmission of voice communications over the Internet or other voice-packet-based networks.

Wide Area Network (WAN):

refers to a computer or telecommunications network that connects multiple buildings across a broad geographic area and usually consists of several LANs (local area networks). Computers are connected to a WAN through public networks (such as telephone systems) or through leased lines or satellites. A WAN may be used within a corporation or it may be accessible to the public (such as the Internet).